Minimum spanning tree problem is find a subset of edges that connects all nodes with minimum cost in weighted graph.
An edgeweighted graph is given as input, and we will select some of edges to create minimum spanning tree. In other word, we will create a subgraph which is a tree with minimum cost. A single graph can have many different spanning trees, but we aim to find spanning tree with minimum weight. The weight of the spanning tree is sum of the weights of edges that belongs the spanning tree.
There are three rules that we need to obey to create a minimum spanning tree:
 Selected edges should not create circle
 All the nodes should be connected to tree
 And, tree should has a weight that less than or equal to the weight of the any other spanning tree
A minimum spanning tree has (V – 1) edges where V is the number of vertices in the given graph. Minimum Spanning Tree example:
There are two solutions that both have greedy approach.

Prim’s algorithm: Start with any vertex and greedily grow a tree from it. At each step, add the cheapest edge to tree that has exactly one endpoint in T.

Kruskal’s algorithm: Sort edges in ascending order of cost. Add the next edge to tree unless doing so would create a cycle.
Prim’s Algorithms
What does algorithm proceed?
Prim’s minimum spanning tree grows by adding next closest vertex to partial tree.
Lets go stepbystep according to given graph below.
We have a graph which has 5 vertex (V), and 7 edges (E) as an input. Our goal is to return subset of given edges that belongs the minimum spanning tree.
Prim’s algorithm starts with a single vertex. Choice of the vertex doesn’t effect the result, can started with any vertex.
Algorithm creates and holds two information for each vertex:
 Key that is a cost when we connect the vertex to tree
 Parent that hold the parent of the vertex in tree
We will start with vertex_0, and make it our current position. Initial key value for vertex_0 will be 0 (zero), parent will be 1. Because of vertex_0 is root of the tree, parent is 1, and we doesn’t have cost to reach vertex_0, so it is 0.
There are listed vertexes that can be reach from vertex_0 and their costs.
 vertex_1 : 2
 vertex_3 : 6
At next step, algorithm updates costs of current vertex’s neighbors, and assign their parent as current vertex. That means if we make connection from parent value, it will cost as much as key value.
Then, algorithm adds one of these vertexes which has minimum cost. So, we add closest vertex to tree, and move to it. In our graph, we will add vertex_1 and make our current vertex vertex_1.
We will repeat these two steps for each current vertex. Neighbor vertexes of Vertex_1, and edge weights between vertex_1:
 vertex_2 : 3
 vertex_3 : 8
There becomes new issue, because vertex_3 already has values but not added to tree yet. What does means? We found out a possible connection to vertex_3 from another vertex, and now we have another connection to vertex_3 from current. We will compare this two costs, and choose lowest one. Because of existing cost of vertex_3 is less, we are not going to update cost of vertex_3. We will just update vertex_2 as key is 3, parent is 1.
Note: When we are updating neighbors’ costs of vertex, we don’t consider visited vertexs, and don’t add them to tree again.
Then, we will look at all vertexes which is valued, but not added. By comparing vertex_2 and vertex_3 we will add and go to closest vertex, which is vertex_2 with cost 3.
Algorithm repeats these two steps until all vertexes are added to tree. These repeating steps are illustrated in below pictured.
After add all vertexes, algorithms will end and will print (V  1) edges that belongs tree.
Basic steps
 Step 1: Pick a vertex as a starting point (root)
 Step 2: Update neighbors’ key value and parent
 Step 3: Find next closest vertex, and go to Step 2
Implementation of Algorithm in C++
Step 1: Get inputs
cin >> V >> E;
for (i=0; i < E; ++i) {
cin >> x >> y >> weight;
g[x][y] = g[y][x] = weight;
}
Step 2: Assign initial values of vertexs’ keys as infinite, and positions as not used
for (int i=0; i<v; ++i)
key[i]=INT_MAX, used[i]=false;
Step 3: Start from a single vertex which is root
current = 0;
used[current] = true;
key[current] = 0, parent[current] = 1;
Step 4: Make loop to add (V  1) more vertex
for (i=0; i < V1; ++i)
{
// Step 5;
// Step 6;
}
Step 5: Update neighbors’ key value and parent IF (there is an edge bt curent and I) && (I is not used) && (edge is less than I’s key)
for (i=0; i < V; ++i)
if (g[current][i] && !used[i] && g[current][i] < key[i])
key[i] = g[u][i], parent[i] = current;
Step 6: Find a vertex, and update cuurent IF (I is not used) && (I has min cost)
min = INT_MAX;
for (i=0; i < V; ++i)
if (!used[i] && key[i]<min)
min = key[i], minI = i;
current = minI;
used[current] = true;
Step 7: Print output
cout << "Edge Weight\n";
for (i=1; i < V; ++i)
cout << parent[i] <<"  "<< i <<" "<< g[i][parent[i]] << endl;
Kruskal’s Algorithms
Explanation will be added later.